The striker joined from Chelsea in January and was an instant hit in north London, netting 13 goals in 14 games in all competitions last season.
England, who featured for the Lionesses on their journey to the World Cup final in Australia in August, is due to miss the first couple of weeks of the new season after undergoing minor surgery on her hip earlier this month.
She takes the captaincy from experienced defender Shelina Zadorsky, who has amassed 90 caps for Canada. Meanwhile, Molly Bartrip and Olga Ahtinen have been made vice-captains.
“I’m very humbled and thankful that I’ve been given the opportunity to lead this football club,” said England.
“I think I’ve grown up a lot in the last few years. I’ve thrived under the opportunity here. I’ve enjoyed playing my football, I’ve been playing some great football and scoring some good goals. Hopefully I can continue to score those goals and lead this team in the best way that I know how.
“Everyone knows that you play your best football when you’re happy. I’ve obviously met [new manager] Robert [Vilahamn] a few times now. I’ve seen the style of play that he’s trying to implement and it’s great to see how much the girls have taken that on board.”
Vilahamn said: “Bethany is a true professional who always gives her best and demands the best from her environment. She’s a winner and a great role model for others as she always puts the team first.
“Together with this, she is a very humble person who treats everyone with respect, which makes her the perfect leader and ambassador for Tottenham.”